Updated resources

Download a comprehensive bibliography (Word doc).

Secondary Sources


Claude Lichtenstein and Thomas Schregenberger, As Found: The Discovery of the Ordinary, Lars Muller Publishers, Zurich, 2001.

A useful collection of essays which focus on New Brutalism and its links with Free Cinema. Beautifully produced and illustrated.

Book cover from the 'As Found' exhibition

Book cover from the As Found exhibition

Anne Massey, The Independent Group: Modernism and Mass Culture, 1945-59, Manchester University Press, Manchester, 1995.

The only monograph of the Independent Group, written by the author of this website, written under her maiden name. It considers the Group within the social and political context of post war Britain. This includes a consideration of national identity and cold war culture. The book also includes an early history of the ICA and a detailed account of the Independent Group, before during and after its meetings. Now out of print, there are plans to make it available electronically on this website.

Book cover from the 'The Independent Group' exhibition

Book cover from The Independent Group's Modernism and Mass culture in Britail 1945–59 exhibition

Norwich School of Art, THINGS, publication of conference proceedings to accompany an exhibition of the same name, October 2000.

Contains an essay by Anne Massey on ‘Any Old Things: The Independent Group and Material Culture’.

Catalogue for the 'Things' exhibition, Norwich School of Art and Design

Catalogue for the Things exhibition, Norwich School of Art and Design

David Robbins (Ed), the Independent Group: Postwar Britain and the Aesthetics of Plenty, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, 1990.

The catalogue of an exhibition held at the Hood Museum of Art, Dartmouth College, the ICA London, the Museum of Contemporary Art, LA and the University Art Museum, University of California at Berkley. It contains short, Retrospective Statements by the majority of Independent Group members and longer essays by Alloway and the Smithsons. There is also a useful chronology and essays by contemporary theorists, which link the Independent Group to postmodernism.

Primary Sources

Coming soon: A chronological list of published work by Independent Group members

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